There is great deal positive that can be said about this sweeping history of the human species on Earth. Dr. Harari homes in on key factors of human development such as the impact of economic systems, the building of empires, and the spread of religion. His brief descriptions of different philosophies and religious concepts and his explanations of why some have been more successful than others are highly enlightening. He points out many areas of conflict and contradiction in present society. In one insightful statement he identifies an escalating conflict between liberal humanism and evolutionary humanism (biology), which is coming even more to the forefront with the advent of sophisticated tools for genetic modification.Yet, the reader is frequently reminded that Dr. Harari is an historian and not a scientist and that sapiens are not his favorite species. Some long sections are little more than sermonizing about his pet peeves with the current world order: Western Racism and mistreatment of animals. His long diatribes about rampant racism are aimed exclusively at Europe and the US. He fails to make any mention of the significant minorities in his own country who claim to have been explicitly disenfranchised, an omission that smacks of hypocrisy. And despite pages and pages of editorializing about the supposedly terrible way domestic animals are treated today, he fails to provide any real evidence that treatment of animals has become worse today than it was in past, or that this is a uniquely human flaw. On the contrary, it is easy to find many first-hand accounts of chimps, dolphins, and cats interacting with other species in a manner that clearly fits the definition of torture.With an allusion to another of Dr. Harari’s pet peeves, the agricultural revolution, Sapiens contains a lot of wheat, but the reader also needs to separate out the chaff.